ghana deforestation problems

ghana deforestation problems

“The government of Ghana has reached very far with the EU to make the agreement work and it will soon issue the forest law enforcement, governance and trade license for the agreement to take [effect],” Abu-Juam told Mongabay. However, some say these communities could also be a key to saving Ghana’s forest reserves. Residents have expressed concern about the impacts mining might have on the forest, among them Nana Oppong Dinkyine. Ghana, a developing country, is facing so many environmental challenges despite the policies put in place by the various institutions to help curb this problem. Abu-Juam said the governments of Ghana and the European Union had entered into an agreement that would allow only legal wood to enter the EU market, and had established the Legality Assurance System, which tracks each piece of timber from where it is cut to where it is sold. Illegal timber harvesting isn’t the only activity driving deforestation in Tano-Offin. The fall in the proportion of volume sales accounted for by logs was accompanied by a dramatic fall in their share in earnings, from 50-60 percent in the mid-1980s to 23 percent in 1990.[1]. Places to Watch draws on a combination of near-real-time satellite data, automated algorithms and field intelligence to identify new areas on a monthly basis. A century ago, Ghana's tropical hardwood forest extended from about the middle of the country southward to the sea. By the early 1990s, only about one-third of the country was still forested, and not all of this was of commercial value. Friends of the Earth (FoE) Ghana, an NGO, has initiated a program called “community-based real-time monitoring” to try and clamp down on the country’s rampant illegal logging. This is an extremely important initiative because, in Ghana, approximately 15 per cent of deforestation is being caused by cocoa farming, as it’s our main export, while almost 800,000 farming families are involved with the cocoa trade. Since 1983 forestry has benefited from more than US$120 million in investments and has undergone substantial changes, resulting in doubled earnings between 1985 and 1990. However, that hasn’t stopped logging and other illegal activities from deforesting them. “The continuous depletion of the forest is seriously having a negative effect on our livelihood as our water bodies are being dried up and with the amount of rainfall dropping every year in this community, we are likely to face acute water shortage in the near future,” Dinkyine said. The multi-stakeholder Cocoa & Forests Initiative is an attempt at addressing the problems. However, WRI has no editorial influence over Mongabay content. The most important was severe deforestation. However, Satelligence’s report differs in one significant aspect from WRI’s: it says cocoa is not the main driver of deforestation in Ghana, instead laying blame on logging, mining, fire, and industrial agricultural expansion for other kinds of crops. The cheap air-dried processing method was not satisfactory because air-dried wood tends to destabilize over time. Banner image: Young common chimpanzees ponder their future. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Forestry_in_Ghana&oldid=968628671, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2010, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from July 2013, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from July 2013, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles needing additional references from July 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 July 2020, at 15:00. To help tackle deforestation issues in Ghana, we, Senyo Kofi Agbleze and Freda Yamorti Gbande, put together an initiative known as the Green Cast Project.With our role as TFF Ambassadors, we want to help create awareness about deforestation as an issue leading to potential food insecurity in rural communities. Acidic Oceans. Mongabay is a U.S.-based non-profit conservation and environmental science news platform. Furthermore, infrastructure in the Western Region where lumber processing is located continued to be relatively neglected compared with mining and cocoa production regions. Most overseas demand is for kiln-dried products, and Ghanaian manufacturers lacked sufficient kilns to meet that demand. “If you have come to look for trees in this forest then forget it because we have cut them all,” said a chainsaw operator who was illegally felling trees in the reserve to sell to a local buyer. This has seemingly created a situation of impunity, with trucks carrying timber in broad daylight from the reserve to the city of Kumasi a common sight, even though the Forestry Commission has set up checkpoints along the route. A publication by data analytics company Satelligence, however, affirmed WRI’s findings that Ghana deforestation did indeed experience a 60 percent jump. Editor’s note: This story was powered by Places to Watch, a Global Forest Watch (GFW) initiative designed to quickly identify concerning forest loss around the world and catalyze further investigation of these areas. The forestry sector of Ghana accounted for 4.2 percent of GDP in 1990; timber was the country's third largest foreign exchange earner. Upon hearing that the loggers had official permission, the guard allowed them to proceed. Sources on the ground say that illegal logging done at the hands of Ghanaian nationals as well as foreigners, especially Chinese nationals, appears to be the main cause of deforestation in the reserve. Mongabay reached out to Ghana’s Forestry Commission, but requests for comment were not answered by the time this story was published. But sources say that Forestry Commission officials aren’t just allowing logging here — they’re actively participating in it. Anane Frempong, the political head, or “assemblyman,” in Ghanaian parlance, of the Kyekyewere electoral area that comprises Tano-Offin, told Mongabay that his outfit seized some 6,000 pieces of timber last year that were harvested illegally in the reserve. When confronted by the forest guard manning the checkpoint, one of the loggers said a forestry officer from Goaso district had allowed them to cut down trees in the reserve. It is assessed that more than 90 percent of the high forest they have been enrolled since the late 1940s with current rates of deforestation being 5% for possible later use what’s more, 2% in reservations (Tamakloe, North Dakota). [1], Until the 1980s, forestry production suffered because of the overvalued cedi and deterioration of the transportation infrastructure. Cause Of Deforestation In Ghana. Furthermore, the old Ghana Timber Marketing Board was disbanded and replaced by two bodies, the Timber Export Development Board—responsible for marketing and pricing, and the Forest Products Inspection Bureau—responsible for monitoring contracts, maintaining quality standards, grading products, and acting as a watchdog for illegal transactions. WRI found that while mining and logging were partly to blame for Ghana’s deforestation, the expansion of cocoa farms was the main culprit. According to the World Cocoa Foundation, 2.3 million hectares of rainforest were cleared in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to make way for cocoa farms between 1988 and 2007. Ghana is still confronted with serious and complex environmental challenges, despite the various interventions by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over the last 40 years. By the early 1990s, there were approximately 220 lumber processors in Ghana, but the industry operated under several constraints. At this rate of logging, Ghana’s forests would disappear in the next ten years and Ghana would become a net importer of wood (Forest Watch Ghana 2004). According to the report, the loss of Ghana’s primary forest cover jumped 60 percent from 2017 to 2018 – almost entirely from its protected areas. 11 But it has also resulted in deforestation elsewhere, including in Cameroon, Indonesia and Peru. However, he said the program suffered a setback as illegal operators impersonated whistle-blowers to send forestry officials on a wild goose chase in one area while they logged in another. In 1993 timber and wood products earnings totaled US$140 million against a targeted level of US$130 million. Feedback: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. “To mitigate this conflict, I will humbly appeal to the government of Ghana through the Forestry Commission to demarcate an area for farmland in the reserve to enable members of the community to have food to eat, as we have nowhere to call our town apart from the Kyekyewere community,” Frempong said. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. 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Deforestation in Ghana: Government's incentives and policies Ghana has one of the highest deforestation rates in Africa and the world, at 2% per annum. Some of the external financing underwrote these institutional changes, while much of the rest financed forestry management and research as well as equipment for logging, saw milling, and manufacturing. The oceans are becoming more acidic with an increased supply of carbon dioxide from deforestation and burning fossil fuels. “Public officials are deeply involved in the illegal activities.”. Scientist, economist, environmentalist and many others have deliberated that the prevailing patterns of deforestation are bound to wreak havoc on the earth as the home for mankind … Bradt Travel Guide to Ghana; Map of Ghana In 1993 timber and wood products earnings totaled US$140 million against a targeted level of US$130 million. Bush fires, set to clear land and aided by the dry harmattan season from November to March, have consumed large swaths of forest. factors. To end deforestation, Barry Callebaut maps cocoa farms in its direct supply chain within 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) of protected forest areas in the Ivory Coast, Ghana and Cameroon. The Ghana news Agency (GNA) was established on March 5, 1957, i.e. The biggest impact has been in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana where cocoa production is estimated to have been responsible for about one quarter of historical deforestation in Cote d’Ivoire and nearly 15 per cent in the high-forest zone of Ghana. According to Abu-Juam, the Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources is also engaging members of the public, particularly those living around the reserves, to fight illegal logging. Secondly, Ghana’s economy relies heavily on climate sensitive sectors mainly on Ghana could earn tens of millions of dollars for reducing its deforestation rate under a carbon-trading initiative proposed by a coalition of developing countries and under discussion this week at U.N. climate talks in Nairobi, Kenya. problem of deforestation in Ghana-the reason for the new legislation-and after an overview the Act, the article examines key issues arising out of the new legislation. He cited a case in which illegal operators tried fooling forest guards by entering a reserve during the night, cutting down trees, and making them into semi-finished doors in the forest before transporting them out before daybreak. Most of this wood has been cut. He said that a concession once leased by the company had since been invaded by illegal loggers, including former company staff. A new report released by the Cocoa Barometer analysing trends within the cocoa sector has highlighted the need for government and industry stakeholders as well as farmers and civil society organisations, to outline policies to end deforestation and human rights abuses within the … “This is the challenge confronting us here,” said the guard, who asked not to be named. “That is why we are going to resist the mining operation in the forest — to protect our rivers.”. However, efforts to protect forests are often stymied. Mongabay maintains complete editorial independence over the stories reported using this data. These reserves are under official protection. Forestry, deforestation and biodiversity in Ghana This study seeks to examine the causes and consequences of forest loss and therefore biodiversity loss in Ghana. Forestry practices, wildfires and, in … Ghana has an "estimated" population of 29.4 million … Other difficulties include lack of expertise at technological and managerial levels. Image by Delphine Bruyere via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0). The most notable case involved African Timber and Plywood, once Ghana's largest exporter of round logs. Scandals have been reported in Ghana's forestry industry since 1986, and they erupted again in early 1992. Foreign investment incentives were not so attractive in this sector as in others, for example, mining. Improvements in the processing sector caused wood products (excluding lumber) to rise to about 20 percent of export earnings in 1991, accounting for 6.9 percent of volume exports. See Pictures. Frempong, the Kyekyewere assemblyman, told Mongabay that the community had existed in the forest for more than 200 years, and that its residents had no other place to go. The focus of the analysis is the probable effect of the Act on the timber industry.2 Through a discussion of the Act's salient provisions on costs It examines the driving forces behind and evaluates policy options for addressing the problem of biodiversity loss. It’s estimated that deforestation is responsible for around 20% of greenhouse gas emissions and 1.5 billion tons of carbon is released every year by tropical deforestation. Another forest guard who also spoke to Mongabay on condition of anonymity said that state officials were also giving out concessions in the reserve to their cronies. These challenges include waste management, illegal mining, logging, deforestation, noise, water and air pollution. Human settlement in Tano-Offin has also contributed to the destruction of its forest. “With the project, FoE-Ghana selected some members of the forest fringe communities, trained them to be conversant with forest laws and mobile systems applications … to collect and transmit quality data, which can be in a form of video, audio or picture, and transmit the data onto [a] centralized database,” Acquah said. Deforestation can lead to many environmental problems, aside from the obvious loss of trees. Biomass and land use carbon emissions data for Ghana "Tree cover threshold" is used for defining the tree cover area. Ghana’s last remaining tracts of primary forest can only be found within areas granted official protection. [citation needed] Furthermore, the environmental group, Friends of the Earth, alleged that there had been additional thefts by foreign companies totaling almost US$50 million in hard currency during the 1980s. Moreover, nearly half the country was covered with forests, which included 680 species of trees and several varieties of mahoganies. Dennis Acquah, project coordinator for FoE-Ghana, said the program has helped build capacity in communities living within forests to detect and report illegal activities as they’re happening by using a mobile phone app. He said this success could be scaled up and urged the involvement of all forest communities. Here, illegal logging is also underway. He said forest guards intimidated and harassed them whenever they farmed in the forest, alleging that last year they forced a resident of the community to swallow a dry plantain leaf, which Frempong says led to the man’s death a few days later. Barry Callebaut has a goal of becoming carbon positive by 2025, meaning it will store more carbon than it emits. 2701 Words11 Pages. 2.1.1 Deforestation in GhanaNumerous legitimate concerns have been raised about the devastating environmental impact of extensive destruction of forests. The report indicated that Africa has the second highest rate of deforestation worldwide (with 3.4 million hectares of forest loss annually).The situation is not any different in Ghana where forest has been under pressure from human activities over the last century. But its primary forest has all but vanished, with what remains generally relegated to reserves scattered throughout the country’s southern third. on the eve of Ghana's independence and charged with the "dissemination of truthful unbiased news". The Forest Resource Management Project, part of the economic recovery program (ERP), was initiated in 1988, and in 1989 the government banned log exports of eighteen species. Several areas of t… Even in the early 1990s, scientists estimated 80 to 90 percent of the country’s original high canopy forest had been wiped out. In the mid-1980s, the government embarked on a US$36 million rehabilitation project to boost the company's production. These were handed over to officials from the Forestry Commission, which has established a task force to prevent illegal logging. Acquah said the project had yielded positive results, including driving many illegal loggers from reserves and the confiscation of illegal timber. Exports fell from US$130 million in 1973 to US$15 million in 1983, and four nationalized firms went bankrupt during that period. However, Abu-Juam said that although the government of Ghana was making an effort to improve the monitoring mechanisms in the reserves, those involved in the illegal activity often find ways to outwit these measures. [1], Instead, the government hoped to increase sales of wood products to replace earnings from logs. Community leader Agya Bomba blamed the now-defunct Ayum Timber Company for the increase in illegal logging in Bia Tano. Ultimately, deforestation in Ghana is due to demographic and economic pressures, policy and institutional lapses, increased infrastructural developments and technological advances. Forests cover about one-third of Ghana's total area, with commercial forestry concentrated in the southern parts of Ghana. Compounding the problem of soil loss is the relatively poor soil in which most rain forests grow. In the transition zone of Ghana, bush fires annually cause havoc on forest resources This year the company mapped 52,558 farms. Hopefully it comes as no great surprise to you that deforestation is a major problem in many areas of the world, both it terms of preserving biodiversity and preventing ... Ghana . Deforestation in Ghana is a research-based analytical study that explains the disconnect between the declared deforestation policy intentions and their outcomes in Ghana. This essay seeks to elaborate briefly on some of the main environmental challenges … This situation has forced the government to make difficult choices between desperately needed hard currency earnings and conservation. Written by Senyo Kofi Agbleze & Freda Yamorti Gbande, TFF Ambassadors from Ghana. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Just about 20.7% of Ghana's total land area remains arable (land good for farming). Our EIN or tax ID is 45-3714703. He also mentioned a recent arrest made when Forestry Commission officials discovered loggers were transporting illegal wood from a reserve by hiding it in coffins. Ghana’s last remaining tracts of primary forest can only be found within areas granted official protection. An analysis of satellite data published earlier this year by U.S.-based World Resource Institute (WRI), found Ghana experienced the biggest relative increase in primary forest loss of all tropical countries last year. A stakeholders’ workshop to discuss measures to address deforestation and boost cocoa production in the Ahafo Region has been held at Goaso. Every day, Mongabay reporters bring you news from nature’s frontline. However, even these are no longer immune to the advance of deforestation, with many hit hard by a surge of forest loss that began in April. [1] The forestry sector was given a large boost in 1986, with a US$24 million timber rehabilitation credit, which financed imports of logging equipment. Introduct 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. Soil can be swept away because tree roots are no longer there to bind the soil together. Ghana is no exception to the continuous environmental degradation as a result of deforestation fuelled by her rapid At the Bediakokrom community just east of Bia Tano, dozens of sawmills can be seen just outside the reserve. In 1992 as much as US$2.3 million was alleged to have been siphoned off from the project through various malpractices, and a number of officials were arrested. Again, the development of a National Climate Change Adaptation Stragegy has been agreed on as a trigger under the Natural Resources and Environmental Governance Programme in Ghana. Recent articles | Ghana news updates | XML Suggested reading - Books. Between January and November 1994, exports amounted to 919,000 tons and earned U… [1], The sector, however, faced several problems. In partnership with Mongabay, GFW is supporting data-driven journalism by providing data and maps generated by Places to Watch. Box 2: The effects of climate change on Ghana and nations as a result of disasters. For example in the most widely used information by NGOs, only 6% of deforestation in cloudy areas like Ghana is detected on a real-time basis, if we add radar that can see through clouds that is hampering observation we can vastly improve the timeliness of the detection, and in terms of biggest risk areas we have only started to look at the problem ​,” he says. The buyer showed up with a truck to haul off the logs. It refuted the 60 percent figure, saying instead that Ghana’s primary forest loss had increased by 31 percent between 2017 and 2018. Abu-Juam said the government had introduced a program rewarding people who report illegal logging. “FoE then collaborate[s] with the Forestry Commission for verification of the alerts and then take action.”. He added that a special court had been established, with trained local forestry officials acting as prosecutors to deal with cases involving illegal operators in the reserves. He also blamed deforestation on forest-dependent communities, saying “their continuous expansion is destructive to the reserves in which they live.”. Between 1990 and 2000, Ghana lost an average of 135,000 hectares of forest per year; amounting to an average annual deforestation rate of … It was also to share and discuss outcomes of a … Half a dozen communities are situated deep inside the reserve, of which Kyekyewere is the largest. While mining has not yet started, infrastructure development is underway, with roads to prospective mining sites currently under construction. However, there is no medical facility or electricity, and most community members depend on farming to survive. He told Mongabay that deforestation is already affecting water resources. When land is deforested, plant and animal diversity can be lost. Causes of deforestation Farming, grazing of livestock, mining, and drilling combined account for more than half of all deforestation. Government figures showed that one cubic meter of lumber and plywood was worth more than twice as much as the same amount of logs; veneers earned five times as much; and other products, such as furniture and floorings, earned six times the price of an equivalent volume of logs. S forest reserves east of Bia Tano forest reserve and arrested the perpetrators ghana deforestation problems. Prevent illegal logging in Bia Tano will store more carbon than it.! Mongabay reporters bring you news from nature ’ s report, the sector, however, there is no facility... 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